State Interest and the Sources of International Law: Doctrine, Morality, and Non-Treaty Law
This book addresses the disparity between positive non-treaty law and its scholarly assessment in the area of moral concepts, understood as altruistic as opposed to reciprocal legal obligations.
It shows how scholars are generously willing to assert the existence of a rule of international law, thereby moving further away from actual state practice, not taking into account the factors of legal rhetoric and the core survival interests of the state in the formation of custom and general principles of law. The main argument is that such moral concepts can simply not manifest themselves as non-treaty sources of international law from a dogmatical point of view.
The reason is the inherent connection between the formation of the non-treaty sources of international law and state interest that makes it difficult, if not impossible, to assess state practice or opinio iuris in the case of altruistic obligations. The book further demonstrates this finding by looking at two cases in point: Human rights and humanitarian exceptions to the prohibition of force.
As opposed to the majority of existing works on the subject, State Interest and the Sources of International Law takes a bigger-picture approach to a number of distinct problems in international law scholarship by looking at the building blocks of international relations, on the one hand, and merging this with sources doctrine on the other. It will be of interest to researchers, academics, and students in the fields of international law, human rights, international relations, political science, legal philosophy, and legal theory.
Contents: List of TreatiesList of CasesPermanent Court of International JusticeInternational Court of JusticeArbitral Awards IXEuropean Court of Human RightsInternational Criminal Tribunal for YugoslaviaUnited States CasesUnited Kingdom CasesList of DocumentsLeague of NationsUnited NationsInternational Labour OrganizationEuropean UnionUnited StatesMiscellaneousForewordPrefaceAbbreviationsI IntroductionA Do you Believe in International Law?
1. The Quest for the Status Quo
2. Methodology as Added Value
3. Pending Added Value
4. Immediate Goals
5. The Factual
6. The AbstractB What if I Told You…
1. External Perspectives
2. The International College of Legal Illusionists
3. The "Is" and the "Ought"C Customary International Law and "Customary International Law"
2. Two "Is"
3. Ensuring Effectivity
4. The Downward Spiral
5. State Interest
7. Moral ConceptsD Case Studies
1. Human Rights
2. Use of ForceE Catch, Before the Fall
1. Controversy and Apology
2. "Legality" and "Morality"
3. "Dogmatik", not "Pedantic'II Non-Treaty SourcesA On the "Sources" of International Law
1. Article 38 of the Statute of the International Court of Justice
2. Acceptance and Reception in the Literature
3. Two or Three "Main" Sources?B Customary International Law
1. Law of a Primitive Society
2. Theories on Custom
3. State Practice
4. Opinio Iuris
5. Paradoxes of the Two-Element Theory
6. Schrödinger's Custom
7. The Man on the Clapham Omnibus
8. Practice of the International Court of Justice9. "Modern" Approaches to the Formation of Custom10. AssessmentC General Principles of Law
3. Excursus: "Civilized Nations"
4. AssessmentIII Morality and State InterestA Defining Morality and Legality
3. Two Planes
4. Moral ConceptsB State Interest
3. Interests of States
4. AssessmentIV Doctrine and IndeterminacyA Human Rights as Non-Treaty Law: Doctrine
1. Prelude: Human Rights and the United Nations
2. Human Rights as Customary International Law
3. Human Rights as General Principles of Law
4. Preliminary ConclusionB Humanitarian Use of Force: Indeterminacy
1. Prohibition of the Threat or Use of Force
3. Changing the Rules of Force
4. Humanitarian Intervention Theory
5. The "Responsibility to Protect"
6. Preliminary ConclusionV ConclusionBibliographyA BooksB ArticlesC Other